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Machine Learning Tutorial

Machine learning is a growing technology which enables computers to learn automatically from past data. Machine learning uses various algorithms for building mathematical models and making predictions using historical data or information. Currently, it is being used for various tasks such as image recognition, speech recognition, email filtering, Facebook auto-tagging, recommender system, and many more.

This machine learning course gives you an introduction to machine learning along with the wide range of machine learning techniques such as Supervised, Unsupervised, and Reinforcement learning. You will learn about regression and classification models, clustering methods, hidden Markov models, and various sequential models.

Why Learn Machine Learning using Python?

Data Science is a set of techniques that enables the computers to learn the desired behavior from data without explicitly being programmed. It employs techniques and theories drawn from many fields within the broad areas of mathematics, statistics, information science, and computer science. This course exposes you to different classes of machine learning algorithms like supervised, unsupervised and reinforcement algorithms. This course imparts you the necessary skills like data pre-processing, dimensional reduction, model evaluation and also exposes you to different machine learning algorithms like regression, clustering, decision trees, random forest, Naive Bayes and Q-Learning.

What is Machine Learning

In the real world, we are surrounded by humans who can learn everything from their experiences with their learning capability, and we have computers or machines which work on our instructions. But can a machine also learn from experiences or past data like a human does? So here comes the role of Machine Learning.

introduction to machine learning

Machine Learning is said as a subset of artificial intelligence that is mainly concerned with the development of algorithms which allow a computer to learn from the data and past experiences on their own. The term machine learning was first introduced by Arthur Samuel in 1959. We can define it in a summarized way as:

Machine learning enables a machine to automatically learn from data, improve performance from experiences, and predict things without being explicitly programmed.

With the help of sample historical data, which is known as training data, machine learning algorithms build a mathematical model that helps in making predictions or decisions without being explicitly programmed. Machine learning brings computer science and statistics together for creating predictive models. Machine learning constructs or uses the algorithms that learn from historical data. The more we will provide the information, the higher will be the performance.

A machine has the ability to learn if it can improve its performance by gaining more data.

How does Machine Learning work

A Machine Learning system learns from historical data, builds the prediction models, and whenever it receives new data, predicts the output for it. The accuracy of predicted output depends upon the amount of data, as the huge amount of data helps to build a better model which predicts the output more accurately.

Suppose we have a complex problem, where we need to perform some predictions, so instead of writing a code for it, we just need to feed the data to generic algorithms, and with the help of these algorithms, machine builds the logic as per the data and predict the output. Machine learning has changed our way of thinking about the problem. The below block diagram explains the working of Machine Learning algorithm:

introduction to machine learning learnerscoach

Features of Machine Learning:

  • Machine learning uses data to detect various patterns in a given dataset.
  • It can learn from past data and improve automatically.
  • It is a data-driven technology.
  • Machine learning is much similar to data mining as it also deals with the huge amount of the data.

Need for Machine Learning

The need for machine learning is increasing day by day. The reason behind the need for machine learning is that it is capable of doing tasks that are too complex for a person to implement directly. As a human, we have some limitations as we cannot access the huge amount of data manually, so for this, we need some computer systems and here comes the machine learning to make things easy for us.

We can train machine learning algorithms by providing them the huge amount of data and let them explore the data, construct the models, and predict the required output automatically. The performance of the machine learning algorithm depends on the amount of data, and it can be determined by the cost function. With the help of machine learning, we can save both time and money.

The importance of machine learning can be easily understood by its uses cases, Currently, machine learning is used in self-driving cars, cyber fraud detection, face recognition, and friend suggestion by Facebook, etc. Various top companies such as Netflix and Amazon have build machine learning models that are using a vast amount of data to analyze the user interest and recommend product accordingly.

Following are some key points which show the importance of Machine Learning:

  • Rapid increment in the production of data
  • Solving complex problems, which are difficult for a human
  • Decision making in various sector including finance
  • Finding hidden patterns and extracting useful information from data.

Classification of Machine Learning

At a broad level, machine learning can be classified into three types:

  1. Supervised learning
  2. Unsupervised learning
  3. Reinforcement learning

classification of machine learning learnerscoach

1) Supervised Learning

Supervised learning is a type of machine learning method in which we provide sample labeled data to the machine learning system in order to train it, and on that basis, it predicts the output.

The system creates a model using labeled data to understand the datasets and learn about each data, once the training and processing are done then we test the model by providing a sample data to check whether it is predicting the exact output or not.

The goal of supervised learning is to map input data with the output data. The supervised learning is based on supervision, and it is the same as when a student learns things in the supervision of the teacher. The example of supervised learning is spam filtering.

Supervised learning can be grouped further in two categories of algorithms:

  1. Classification
  2. Regression

2) Unsupervised Learning

Unsupervised learning is a learning method in which a machine learns without any supervision.

The training is provided to the machine with the set of data that has not been labeled, classified, or categorized, and the algorithm needs to act on that data without any supervision. The goal of unsupervised learning is to restructure the input data into new features or a group of objects with similar patterns.

In unsupervised learning, we don’t have a predetermined result. The machine tries to find useful insights from the huge amount of data. It can be further classifieds into two categories of algorithms:

  1. Clustering
  2. Association

3) Reinforcement Learning

Reinforcement learning is a feedback-based learning method, in which a learning agent gets a reward for each right action and gets a penalty for each wrong action. The agent learns automatically with these feedbacks and improves its performance. In reinforcement learning, the agent interacts with the environment and explores it. The goal of an agent is to get the most reward points, and hence, it improves its performance.

The robotic dog, which automatically learns the movement of his arms, is an example of Reinforcement learning.

Applications of Machine learning

Machine learning is a buzzword for today’s technology, and it is growing very rapidly day by day. We are using machine learning in our daily life even without knowing it such as Google Maps, Google assistant, Alexa, etc. Below are some most trending real-world applications of Machine Learning:

applications of machine learning

1. Image Recognition:

Image recognition is one of the most common applications of machine learning. It is used to identify objects, persons, places, digital images, etc. The popular use case of image recognition and face detection is, Automatic friend tagging suggestion:

Facebook provides us a feature of auto friend tagging suggestion. Whenever we upload a photo with our Facebook friends, then we automatically get a tagging suggestion with name, and the technology behind this is machine learning’s face detection and recognition algorithm.
It is based on the Facebook project named “Deep Face,” which is responsible for face recognition and person identification in the picture.

2. Speech Recognition

While using Google, we get an option of “Search by voice,” it comes under speech recognition, and it’s a popular application of machine learning.

Speech recognition is a process of converting voice instructions into text, and it is also known as “Speech to text“, or “Computer speech recognition.” At present, machine learning algorithms are widely used by various applications of speech recognition. Google assistant, Siri, Cortana, and Alexa are using speech recognition technology to follow the voice instructions.

3. Traffic prediction:

If we want to visit a new place, we take help of Google Maps, which shows us the correct path with the shortest route and predicts the traffic conditions.

It predicts the traffic conditions such as whether traffic is cleared, slow-moving, or heavily congested with the help of two ways:

  • Real Time location of the vehicle form Google Map app and sensors
  • Average time has taken on past days at the same time.

Everyone who is using Google Map is helping this app to make it better. It takes information from the user and sends back to its database to improve the performance.

4. Product recommendations:

Machine learning is widely used by various e-commerce and entertainment companies such as Amazon, Netflix, etc., for product recommendation to the user. Whenever we search for some product on Amazon, then we started getting an advertisement for the same product while internet surfing on the same browser and this is because of machine learning.

Google understands the user interest using various machine learning algorithms and suggests the product as per customer interest.

As similar, when we use Netflix, we find some recommendations for entertainment series, movies, etc., and this is also done with the help of machine learning.

5. Self-driving cars:

One of the most exciting applications of machine learning is self-driving cars. Machine learning plays a significant role in self-driving cars. Tesla, the most popular car manufacturing company is working on self-driving car. It is using unsupervised learning method to train the car models to detect people and objects while driving.

6. Email Spam and Malware Filtering:

Whenever we receive a new email, it is filtered automatically as important, normal, and spam. We always receive an important mail in our inbox with the important symbol and spam emails in our spam box, and the technology behind this is Machine learning. Below are some spam filters used by Gmail:

  • Content Filter
  • Header filter
  • General blacklists filter
  • Rules-based filters
  • Permission filters

Some machine learning algorithms such as Multi-Layer Perceptron, Decision tree, and Naïve Bayes classifier are used for email spam filtering and malware detection.

7. Virtual Personal Assistant:

We have various virtual personal assistants such as Google assistant, Alexa, Cortana, Siri. As the name suggests, they help us in finding the information using our voice instruction. These assistants can help us in various ways just by our voice instructions such as Play music, call someone, Open an email, Scheduling an appointment, etc.

These virtual assistants use machine learning algorithms as an important part.

These assistant record our voice instructions, send it over the server on a cloud, and decode it using ML algorithms and act accordingly.

8. Online Fraud Detection:

Machine learning is making our online transaction safe and secure by detecting fraud transaction. Whenever we perform some online transaction, there may be various ways that a fraudulent transaction can take place such as fake accounts, fake ids, and steal money in the middle of a transaction. So to detect this, Feed Forward Neural network helps us by checking whether it is a genuine transaction or a fraud transaction.

For each genuine transaction, the output is converted into some hash values, and these values become the input for the next round. For each genuine transaction, there is a specific pattern which gets change for the fraud transaction hence, it detects it and makes our online transactions more secure.

9. Stock Market trading:

Machine learning is widely used in stock market trading. In the stock market, there is always a risk of up and downs in shares, so for this machine learning’s long short term memory neural network is used for the prediction of stock market trends.

10. Medical Diagnosis:

In medical science, machine learning is used for diseases diagnoses. With this, medical technology is growing very fast and able to build 3D models that can predict the exact position of lesions in the brain.

It helps in finding brain tumors and other brain-related diseases easily.

11. Automatic Language Translation:

Nowadays, if we visit a new place and we are not aware of the language then it is not a problem at all, as for this also machine learning helps us by converting the text into our known languages. Google’s GNMT (Google Neural Machine Translation) provide this feature, which is a Neural Machine Learning that translates the text into our familiar language, and it called as automatic translation.

The technology behind the automatic translation is a sequence to sequence learning algorithm, which is used with image recognition and translates the text from one language to another language.

Machine Learning Certification Training using Python

Edureka’s Machine Learning Certification Training using Python helps you gain expertise in various machine learning algorithms such as regression, clustering, decision trees, random forest, Naïve Bayes and Q-Learning.

This Machine Learning using Python Training exposes you to concepts of Statistics, Time Series and different classes of machine learning algorithms like supervised, unsupervised and reinforcement algorithms. Throughout the Data Science Certification Course, you’ll be solving real-life case studies on Media, Healthcare, Social Media, Aviation, HR.

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