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Introduction to Angular Concepts

Angular is a platform and framework for building single-page client applications using HTML and TypeScript. Angular is written in TypeScript. It implements core and optional functionality as a set of TypeScript libraries that you import into your apps.

The architecture of an Angular application relies on certain fundamental concepts. The basic building blocks are NgModules, which provide a compilation context for components. NgModules collect related code into functional sets; an Angular app is defined by a set of NgModules. An app always has at least a root module that enables bootstrapping, and typically has many more feature modules.

  • Components define views, which are sets of screen elements that Angular can choose among and modify according to your program logic and data.
  • Components use services, which provide specific functionality not directly related to views. Service providers can be injected into components as dependencies, making your code modular, reusable, and efficient.

What is Angular 7?

Angular 7 is a JavaScript (actually a TypeScript based open-source full-stack web application) framework which makes you able to create reactive Single Page Applications (SPAs). Angular 7 is completely based on components. It consists of several components which forms a tree structure with parent and child components. Angular’s versions beyond 2+ are generally known as Angular only. The very first version Angular 1.0 is known as AngularJS.

“Angular is a complete rewrite of AngularJS by the same team that built AngularJS.”

What is Single Page Application (SPA)?

A single page application is a web application or a website which provides users a very fluid, reactive and fast experience similar to a desktop application. It contains menu, buttons and blocks on a single page and when a user clicks on any of them; it dynamically rewrites the current page rather than loading entire new pages from a server. That’s the reason behind its reactive fast speed.

Difference between AngularJS and Angular

AngularJSAngular
AngularJS is common and popular name of the first version of Angular1.0.Angular is common and popular name of the Angular’s version beyond 2+
AngularJS is a JavaScript-based open-source front-end web framework.Angular is a TypeScript-based open-source full-stack web application framework.
AngularJS uses the concept of scope or controller.Instead of scope and controller, Angular uses hierarchy of components as its primary architectural characteristic.
AngularJS has a simple syntax and used on HTML pages along with the source location.Angular uses the different expression syntax. It uses “[ ]” for property binding, and “( )” for event binding.
AngularJS is a simple JavaScript file which is used with HTML pages and doesn’t support the features of a server-side programming language.Angular uses of Microsoft’s TypeScript language, which provides Class-based Object Oriented Programming, Static Typing, Generics etc. which are the features of a server-side programming language.
AngularJS doesn’t support dynamic loading of the page.Angular supports dynamic loading of the page.

Angular 7 vs Angular6 vs Angular2 vs Angular1

Angular1 was initially released in 2010. It was the first Angular version. It created a revolution in the web application development. It was a browser side JavaScript which was used within HTML code. It is popularly known as AngularJS.

Angular2 was a complete rewrite of Angular1. It was initially released in 2016. There is nothing common between Angular2 and Angular1 except the core developer’s team. Angular2, Angular 6 and Angular 7 are very similar to each other. Angular 7 is the latest version. It contains the extensive features of Angular2 and Angular6. These versions are known as Angular.

Why learn Angular?

Angular is one of the most modern, performance-efficient and powerful frontend frameworks you can learn today. The powerful features and capabilities of

Angular allow you to develop dynamic and responsive web applications. It is supported by Google and is built entirely in TypeScript. The ease with which Angular works with MVC components makes it a very popular technology.

One of the best features of the Angular framework is that it is quite flexible when it comes to the usage of external libraries. With the high adoption of the Angular framework, performance management of the application is community-driven indirectly driving better job opportunities.

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Angular Features

A list of most important features and benefits of Angular:

Angular supports multiple platforms

Angular is a cross platform language. It supports multiple platforms. You can build different types of apps by using Angular.

  1. Desktop applications: Angular facilitates you to create desktop installed apps on different types of operating systems i.e. Windows, Mac or Linux by using the same Angular methods which we use for creating web and native apps.
  2. Native applications: You can built native apps by using Angular with strategies from Cordova, Ionic, or NativeScript.
  3. Progressive web applications: Progressive web applications are the most common apps which are built with Angular. Angular provides modern web platform capabilities to deliver high performance, offline, and zero-step installation apps.

High Speed, Ultimate Performance

Angular is amazingly fast and provides a great performance due to the following reasons:

  • Universal support: Angular can be used as a front-end web development tool for the programming languages like Node.js, .Net, PHP, Java Struts and Spring and other servers for near-instant rendering in just HTML and CSS. It also optimizes the website for better SEO.
  • Code splitting: Angular apps are fast and loads quickly with the new Component Router, which delivers automatic code-splitting so users only load code required to render the view they request.
  • Code generation: Angular makes your templates in highly optimized code for today?s JavaScript virtual machines which gives the benefits of hand-written code.

Productivity

Angular provides a better productivity due to its simple and powerful template syntax, command line tools and popular editors and IDEs.

  1. Powerful templates: Angular provides simple and powerful template syntax to create UI view quickly.
  2. IDEs: Angular provides intelligent code completion, instant errors, and other feedback in popular editors and IDEs.
  3. Angular CLI: Angular CLI provides command line tools start building fast, add components and tests, and then instantly deploy.

Full Stack Development

Angular is a complete framework of JavaScript. It provides Testing, animation and Accessibility. It provides full stack development along with Node.js, Express.js, and MongoDB.

  • Testing: Angular provides Karma and Jasmine for unit testing. B y using it, you can check your broken things every time you save. Karma is a JavaScript test runner tool created by Angular team. Jasmine is the testing framework form unit testing in Angular apps, and Karma provides helpful tools that make it easier to us to call our Jasmine tests whilst we are writing code.
  • Animation Support: Angular facilitates you to create high-performance, complex choreographies and animation timelines with very little code through Angular’s intuitive API.
  • Accessibility: In Angular, you can create accessible applications with ARIA-enabled components, developer guides, and built-in a11y test infrastructure.

Angular 7 Architecture

Angular 7 is a platform and framework which is used to create client applications in HTML and TypeScript. Angular 7 is written in TypeScript.

Angular 7 implements core and optional functionality as a set of TypeScript libraries which you import in your app.

NgModules are the basic building blocks of an Angular 7 application. They provide a compilation context for components. An Angular 7 app is defined by a set of NgModules and NgModules collect related code into functional sets.
An Angular 7 app always has at least a root module which enables bootstrapping, and typically has many other feature modules.

  • Components define views, which are the sets of screen elements that are chosen and modified according to your program logic and data by Angular 7.
  • Components use services, which provide specific functionality not directly related to views. Service providers can be injected into components as dependencies, making your code modular, reusable, and efficient.

Components

Components and services both are simply classes with decorators that mark their types and provide metadata which guide Angular to do things.

Every Angular application always has at least one component known as root component that connects a page hierarchy with page DOM. Each component defines a class that contains application data and logic, and is associated with an HTML template that defines a view to be displayed in a target environment.

Metadata of Component class:

  • The metadata for a component class associates it with a template that defines a view. A template combines ordinary HTML with Angular directives and binding markup that allow Angular to modify the HTML before rendering it for display.
  • The metadata for a service class provides the information Angular needs to make it available to components through dependency injection (DI).

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Modules

Angular 7 NgModules are different from other JavaScript modules. Every Angular 7 app has a root module known as AppModule. It provides the bootstrap mechanism that launches the application.

Generally, every Angular 7 app contains many functional modules.

Some important features of Anngular 7 Modules:

  • Angular 7 NgModules import the functionalities form other NgModules just like other JavaScript modules.
  • NgModules allow their own functionality to be exported and used by other NgModules. For example, if you want to use the router service in your app, you can import the Router NgModule.

Template, Directives and Data Binding

In Angular 7, a template is used to combine HTML with Angular Markup and modify HTML elements before displaying them. Template directives provide program logic, and binding markup connects your application data and the DOM.

There are two types of data binding:

  1. Event Binding: Event binding is used to bind events to your app and respond to user input in the target environment by updating your application data. Read more about event binding
  2. Property Binding: Property binding is used to pass data from component class and facilitates you to interpolate values that are computed from your application data into the HTML. Read more about property binding

Services and Dependency Injection

In Angular 7, developers create a service class for data or logic that isn’t associated with a specific view, and they want to share across components.

Dependency Injection (DI) is used to make your component classes lean and efficient. DI doesn’t fetch data from the server, validate user input, or log directly to the console; it simply renders such tasks to services.

Routing

In Angular 7, Router is an NgModule which provides a service that facilitates developers to define a navigation path among the different application states and view hierarchies in their app.

It works in the same way as a browser’s navigation works. i.e.:

  • Enter a URL in the address bar and the browser will navigate to that corresponding page.
  • Click the link on a page and the browser will navigate to a new page.
  • Click the browser’s back or forward buttons and the browser will navigate backward or forward according to your seen history pages.

How does Router work?

The router maps URL-like paths to views instead of pages. Whenever a user performs an action, such as clicking a link that would load a new page in the browser, the router intercepts the browser’s behavior, and shows or hides view hierarchies.

If the router finds that the current application state requires particular functionality, and the module that defines it hasn’t been loaded, the router can lazy-load the module on demand.

The router interprets a link URL according to your app’s view navigation rules and data state. You can navigate to new views when the user clicks a button or selects from a drop box, or in response to some other stimulus from any source. The router logs activity in the browser’s history, so the back and forward buttons work as well.

To define navigation rules, you associate navigation paths with your components. A path uses a URL-like syntax that integrates your program data, in much the same way that template syntax integrates your views with your program data. You can then apply program logic to choose which views to show or to hide, in response to user input and your own access rules.

Angular Certification Training

Edureka’s Angular Certification Training will enable you to build dynamic, responsive and interactive web applications by mastering the concepts of Angular 8.

Angular 8 Training covers Angular 8 concepts such as Angular Modules, Angular Components, Data binding, Angular Animations, Angular Forms, DOM manipulation using Directives and Pipes, Component interaction using Services and Dependency Injection (DI), Communicate with backend services over HTTP protocol, Perform Routing and Authentication with JWT plus Application Deployment using Nginx and Docker.

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