Introduction To Computer Network

A computer network is a connection of a collection of various computing devices in a way that they communicate with each other. The devices are connected to each other using a variety of media. In a network, more than one type of media can be used wired (also called guided) or unwired (also called unguided).

The aim of the computer network is the sharing of resources among various devices. In the case of computer network technology, there are several types of networks that vary from simple to complex level.

Introduction To Computer Network

The field of Information Technology (IT) changed when Communication became part of it, leading to Information and Communication Technology (ICT). This course introduces learners to Computer network and the Internet.

At the end of the module, learners will be able to;

  • List the advantages of networked computing relative to standalone computing
  • Distinguish between client/server and peer-to-peer networks
  • List elements common to all client/server networks
  • Describe several specific uses for a network

Components Of Computer Network

components of computer network

Examples of Network Components include;

NIC(National interface card)
NIC is a device that helps the computer to communicate with another device. The network interface card contains the hardware addresses, the data-link layer protocol use this address to identify the system on the network so that it transfers the data to the correct destination.


There are two types of NIC: wireless NIC and wired NIC.

Wireless NIC: All the modern laptops use the wireless NIC. In Wireless NIC, a connection is made using the antenna that employs the radio wave technology.
Wired NIC: Cables use the wired NIC to transfer the data over the medium.

A hub is a central device that divides a network connection among several devices. When a computer asks another computer for information, it transmits the request to the Hub. This request is distributed to all linked computers by the hub.

A switch is a networking device that connects all of the devices on a network so that data can be sent from one to the other. A switch is superior than a hub because it sends the message to the device to which it belongs rather than broadcasting it over the network. As a result, the message is sent directly from the source to the destination by the switch.

Router is a device that connects the LAN to the internet. The router is mainly used to connect the distinct networks or connect the internet to multiple computers.

Modem connects the computer to the internet over the existing telephone line. A modem is not integrated with the computer motherboard. A modem is a separate part on the PC slot found on the motherboard.

Transmission Media
Cable is a transmission media that transmits the communication signals. There are three types of cables:

  1. Twisted pair cable: This is a high-speed cable that can transport data at speeds of up to 1 gigabit per second.
  2. Coaxial cable is similar to a television installation cable. Although coaxial cable is more expensive than twisted pair cable, it offers faster data transmission.
  3. Fibre optic cable: Fibre optic cable is a high-speed data transmission wire that uses light beams to transport data. When compared to other cables, it provides a high data transmission speed. Because it is more expensive than other cables, it is only installed at the government level.

Uses of Computer Network

Resource sharing: Resource sharing refers to the sharing of resources like as programs, printers, and data among users on a network without regard to the resource’s or user’s geographical location.

Server Client Model: The server-client model makes advantage of computer networking. A server is a computer that is used to store data and is managed by the system administrator. Clients are the machines that connect to the server remotely to access data.

Communication medium: Computer network behaves as a communication medium among the users. For example, a company contains more than one computer has an email system which the employees use for daily communication.

E-commerce: Computer network is also important in businesses. We can do the business over the internet. For example, is doing their business over the internet, i.e., they are doing their business over the internet.

Types of Computer Network

A computer network is a group of computers linked to each other that enables the computer to communicate with another computer and share their resources, data, and applications.

A computer network can be categorized by their size. A computer network is mainly of four types:

Computer Network Types
types of computer networkLAN(Local Area Network)
PAN(Personal Area Network)
MAN(Metropolitan Area Network)
WAN(Wide Area Network)

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